Satipatthana Shi:

「定」、「三昧」註解為「心專注於一處(或一境)而不散亂」,這邊有點要提醒的,是英文以前曾有人將「定」譯為 One-pointedness of the mind, 但 one-pointedness 太狹礙。

「一心;心得一(MA);歛心專一(DA);專其一意/專其一心/專精一意(AA)」,南傳作(i)「心一境性」(cittassa ekaggatā, cittekaggatā),菩提比丘長老英譯為「心的統一」(unification of mind)。(ii)「一心」(cetaso ekodibhāvaṃ),菩提比丘長老英譯為「心的統一」(unification of mind, SN.36.31)。(iii)「心一境」(ekaggacitto),智髻比丘長老英譯為「心是統一的」(mind is unified, MN.29)。

Unification of mind 是比起 One-pointedness of mind 正確的英譯。


Satipatthana Shi:


《大乘廣五蘊論》:「云何三摩地?謂於所觀事心一境性。所觀事者,謂五蘊等及無常苦空無我等。心一境者,是專注義。與智所依為業。由心定故,如實了知。」(CBETA, T31, no. 1613, pp. 851c28-852a2)

中部43經/毘陀羅大經(雙小品[5])(莊春江譯) 「學友!初禪有五支,學友!這裡,入初禪的比丘存在尋、伺、喜、樂、心一境性,學友!這樣,初禪有五支。」(cittekaggatā)

「一心;心得一(MA);歛心專一(DA);專其一意/專其一心/專精一意(AA)」,南傳作 (i)「心一境性」(cittassa ekaggatā, cittekaggatā),菩提比丘長老英譯為「心的統一」(unification of mind)。 (ii)「一心」(cetaso ekodibhāvaṃ),菩提比丘長老英譯為「心的統一」(unification of mind, SN.36.31)。 (iii)「心一境」(ekaggacitto),智髻比丘長老英譯為「心是統一的」(mind is unified, MN.29)。

Early Buddhist Meditation Studies
by Anālayo

In fact, according to a passage found in the Mahāvedalla-sutta, already with the first absorption one reaches a condition of “mental unification”, cittekaggatā.74 The same indication is made in the Chinese and Tibetan parallels to the Cūḷavedalla-sutta,75 a difference in placement that reflects a general tendency of the two vedalla discourses to have exchanged some doctrinal discussions with each other in various transmission lineages. Once with the removal of vitakka the second absorption has been attained, a condition of “internal stillness”, ajjhattaṃ sampasādanaṃ, obtains and one has reached a still deeper condition of “unification”, ekodibhāva. For a mind unified within, an act of hearing would constitute an external disturbance.

Elsewhere in the Pāli discourses the qualification ekodibhāva refers to a deeply concentrated condition of the mind, capable of developing direct knowledge (abhiññā) or supernormal abilities (iddhi).76 This differs from the usage of the similar term ekaggatā, which for want of a better alternative I also render as “unification”.

Later texts like the Abhidhammatthasaṅgaha consider ekaggatā to be one of the seven mental factors present in every mental state (sabbacittasādhāraṇa).77 This differs from the to some extent comparable definition of “name”, nāma, in the discourses, which does not mention ekaggatā.78 In other words, it is only by the time of Abhidharma analysis that some degree of mental unification was held to be a general characteristic of the mind.79 This is not what ekodibhāva stands for in the early discourses. Here mental unification does not refer just to a momentary focus on an object present in the mind, but rather to a condition of the mind that is unified for a considerable stretch of time.

74 MN 43 at MN I 294,31.

75 MĀ 210 at T I 788c20 and D 4094 ju 8a2 or Q 5595 tu 8b8, which are parallels to MN 44.

76 Most occurrences of the qualification ekodibhāva in the four Pāli Nikāyas seem to be concerned with the second absorption. Two cases that offer further information are AN 3.100 at AN I 254,33, which relates a mental condition that is ekodibhāvādhigato to the ability to realize direct knowledge, and AN 6.70 at AN III 426,8, which describes a samādhi that is similarly specified as ekodibhāvādhigato as enabling the attainment of iddhis. Thus ekodibhāva seems to have a more restricted range of meaning than cittekaggatā.

77 Abhidh-s 2.2; Bodhi 1993: 80 explains that this refers to “the unification of the mind on its object”.

78 SN 12.2 at SN II 3,34 and its parallel EĀ 49.5 at T II 797b28 list feeling, perception, attention, contact, and intention. The Abhidhammatthasaṅgaha list of universal factors adds to these five the two factors of the life faculty and ekaggatā.

David Chiou:

謝謝指出,用「一處」若被誤解為 one-pointedness 則可能造成誤會,原先「一處(或一境)」這文字取自丁福保佛學辭典、佛光大辭典等的「三昧」詞條。依據您所提出,為了避免讀者誤解為 one-pointedness of mind,我們將改為「心專於於一境而不散亂」比較易懂又不致造成誤會。





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